Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon allotrope, whose properties as the lightest and strongest material known to man, and with its ability to conduct heat and electrical charges more efficiently than any other material, present a number of industries with the potential to overcome the technical challenges faced by the limits of existing materials and manufacturing processes.

Industries shaped by graphene uses

Biological engineering - The attributes of graphene fit with the requirements demanded by the development of faster and more efficient bioelectric sensory devices. Advancements work towards monitoring glucose and hemoglobin levels, cholesterol and DNA sequencing processes.

Optical electronics - Graphene's high optical transparency levels are currently more transparent than material used in existing liquid crystal displays. Optical electronic displays require a transparent efficiency of more than 90%. Graphene is able to transmit up to 98% of optically enhanced light.

Ultrafiltration - Except for water, graphene is completely impervious to liquids and gases. Uses of such properties present a number of possibilities that include water filtration, desalination and the potential to make biofuel fuel create more economically viable.

Composite material innovation - Carbon fiber has long been used in a number of applications from sporting equipment to aerospace production. Graphene is much stronger and much lighter than legacy carbon fiber technology and therefore presents a wide number of possibilities from military body armor to lighter weight aircraft.

Photovoltaic cells - High charge-carrier energy applications developed with graphene have the strongest potential to replace silicon photovoltaic cells. Graphene production of such technology is potentially less expensive yet more efficient than silicon-powered fuel cells.

Energy storage - Storing energy when it is not being used remains a critical challenge. Battery and fuel cell technologies have the potential to store unused energy, however, their charging capacities remain slow. Capacitors on the other hand are able to charge at much greater speed but are unfortunately unable to store efficient levels of energy.

In an attempted to achieve more optimized balance efficiency, graphene is used to stabilize lithium-ion battery capacities whereby charges are quicker and unused energy is stored in volume. Technologies most likely to benefit from this advancement are electronically powered vehicles (EVs), mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones, smart homes/buildings, renewable energies and medical equipment.